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  • Immunopathogenesis of Staphylococcal Skin Infections

    Hill PB and Imai I. The immunopathogenesis of staphylococcal skin infections – A review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2016; 49: 8-28(Link to Article). 
    PubMed ID (PMID): NA
    Reprints: Peter Hill
    Comments: This is a review paper that highlights Saphylococcus virulence factors, especially those used to "invade" the skin, and the "defenses" used by the skin and the immune system to resist infections by this microbe. This article provides relevance information in an entertaining fashion
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • The Skin Microbiome of Healthy and Atopic Dogs

    Bradley CW, Morris DO, Rankin SC, Cain CL, Misic AM, Houser T, Mauldin EA and Grice EA . Longitudinal evaluation of the skin microbiome and association with microenvironment and treatment in canine atopic dermatitis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 2016; 136: 1182-1190(Link to Pubmed). 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 26854488
    Reprints: Elizabeth Grice
    Comments: This study compared the skin surface microbiome at four body sites (axilla, pinna, groin, mouth) in 16 healthy dogs and 14 dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis (AD) and associated superficial pyoderma. All atopic dogs were treated with antibiotics, but, in half of these cases, also (as shown by the last supplementary table) with anti-inflammatory drugs; the microbiome was then re-evaluated post-antibiotics and several weeks thereafter. As shown in a previous study (see a previous blog entry, PMID 24421875) the skin of healthy dogs had a more diverse bacterial microbiome than that of dogs with AD. This lower bacterial diversity of atopic dogs was associated with increased proportions of Staphylococcus species (mostly S. pseudintermedius, as expected) and Corynebacterium species. Antibiotic (± anti-allergic) therapy led to a reduction of Staphylococcus populations and re-increase in diversity. Interestingly, the skin lesion scores were correlated with the relative abundance of Staphylococcus species. Finally, and as expected, transepidermal water loss was positively correlated with skin lesion scores, while pH was negatively correlated with lesion grades.
    This paper supports previous findings and provides additional information on the similarity between microbiome changes during AD in humans and dogs
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • Updates on Human Atopic Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    Weidinger S, Novak N. Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 2015, Sep 11 (ePub ahead of print)(Link to Pubmed). 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 26377142  
    Reprints: Stephan Weidinger
    Boehncke WH, Schön MP. Psoriasis. Lancet 2015; 386: 983-994. (Link to Pubmed). 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 26025581
    Comments: These two papers provide excellent up-to-date reviews on the clinical signs, treatment options and immunopathology of these two complex immunologic skin diseases of humans. The depth of information is excellent for residents and veterinary dermatologists wishing to remain updated on these common conditions of humans.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • Mutations in the Gene Encoding Keratin 16 Cause Footpad Hyperkeratosis in Dogues de Bordeaux

    Plassais J, Guaguère E, Lagoutte L, et al. A spontaneous KRT16 mutation in a dog breed: a model for human focal nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (FNEPPK). J Invest Dermatol 2015; 135: 1187-1190(Link to Pubmed). 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 25521457
    Comments: The Dogue de Bordeaux breed has been long known for being predisposed to the development of a hereditary footpad hyperkeratosis. This paper reveals a lack of expression of keratin 16 in suprabasal footpad keratinocytes in affected dogs. Furthermore,  the authors detected a 1 base pair insertion in the KRT16 gene, which resulted in a truncation of keratin 16 due to the loss of the last 85 aminoacids. All affected dogs were found to be homozygotes for the mutated allele; carrier dogs that were heterozygous for the mutation did not exhibit any clinical signs, as is usually the case for the rare autosomal recessive keratinopathies.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • The Histopathology of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Dogs is not What you Think!

    Banovic F, Olivry T, Dazzle L, Tobias JR, Atlee B, Zabel S, Hensel N, Linder KEClinical and microscopic characteristics of canine toxic epidermal necrolysis. Vet Pathol 2015; 52: 321-330Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 24907312
    Reprints: Keith Linder
    Comments: Traditionally, lesions associated with epidermal necrosis without dermal inflammation have been given the diagnosis of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) while those exhibiting lymphocyte-mediated keratinocyte apoptosis at multiple epidermal levels are deemed representative of erythema multiforme (EM). This study shows that, using biopsy material of three dogs with TEN, "EM-like" keratinocyte apoptosis also occurs in canine TEN, as it does for the human disease. As a result, histopathology cannot (and should not) be used for accurately differentiating canine EM and TEN! As for many other diseases, the diagnosis should be made instead from collating information from the history, clinical signs and histopathology.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • CARE Guidelines for Publication of (Human Medical) Case Reports

    Gagnier JJ, Kienle J, Altman DG, Moher D, Sox H, Riley D, the CARE GroupThe CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development. J Med Case Reports 2013; 7: 223Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 24228906
    Comments: These recent consensus guidelines were disseminated widely last year in the medical literature. These guidelines, and especially the items 1-11 of table 1 (CARE guidelines checklist), are likely to prove very helpful to residents wishing to better structure their writing of case reports for publication in veterinary medical journals.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • A Review on Papillomaviruses in Domestic and Wild Felids

    Munday JS. Papillomavirus in felids. Vet J 2014; 199: 340-347Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 24456796
    ReprintJ. Munday
    Comments: This recent review first highlights the methods to detect PVs in lesions, then nicely summarizes the clinical, pathologic and viral characteristics of papillomavirus infections of domestic (mostly) and wild cats. For the former, readers will find pertinent information on cutaneous papillomas, viral plaques, Bowenoid in situ carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), sarcoids, as well as oral papillomas and SCCs.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • A Review on Fungal Diseases of Horses

    Cafarchia C, Figueredo LA, Otranto D. Fungal diseases of horses. Vet Microbiol 2013; 167: 215-234Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 23428378
    ReprintC. Cafarchia 
    Comments: This extensive review covers cutaneous, subcutaneous and deep mycoses of horses. There are two large tables that summarize the data and that will be very useful to those individuals studying for the board-examination.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • The Skin Microbiome of Normal and Allergic Dogs

    Rodrigues Hoffmann A, Patterson AP, Diesel A, Lawhon SD, Ly HJ, Elkins Stephenson C, Mansell J, Steiner JM, Dowd SE, Olivry T, Suchodolski JS. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs. PLoS One 2014; 9: e83197Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 24421875
    ReprintsOpen Access
    Comments: This is the first original report on the skin microbiome of normal dogs, which was established using skin surface PCR of the 16S rRNA gene, a gene common to all bacteria, with sequencing and identification of all products. This paper, albeit complex, provides interesting results on the variability and most abundant bacterial phyla at different skin and mucosal sites. As in humans, the skin microbiome of a small number of allergic dogs was found to be less diverse than that of normal individuals.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

  • Mechanism of Lesions in Canine Leishmaniosis

    Koutinas AF, Koutinas CK. Pathologic mechanisms underlying the clinical findings in canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi. Vet Pathol 2014; 51: 527-538Abstract. 
    PubMed ID (PMID): 24510947
    ReprintAF Koutinas 
    Comments: This is a very useful paper that reviews first the general and then the organ-specific mechanisms (e.g. skin, ocular, renal, musculo-skeletal...) of lesions that occur during leishmaniosis in dogs. A must read for those studying for their dermatology diploma.
    Recommended by: Thierry Olivry, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

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